Eczema is a complex inflammatory disease of the skin that presents a wide range of symptoms.1 term synonymous with eczema is a kind of non-specific dermatitis, usually refers to atopic dermatitis (AD), the most common type of eczema.Allergic or atopic eczema, or eczema, affects about 20 percent of children and 3 percent of adults worldwide
AD usually starts early in childhood and is often the first step in the “atopic march.””” the skin barrier dysfunction of eczema can cause food and air allergens to enter through the damaged barrier, triggering an immune response and inflammatory response.” “Children with early eczema are three times more likely to be sensitized by an allergen by the age of two than normal children.Food reactions can be mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) or non-ige (such as herpes dermatitis).As the march continues, children are at increased risk of allergic rhinitis or asthma later in life.
Atopic dermatitis is a complex disease usually associated with other conditions such as asthma and rhinitis.The guidelines recommend that diagnosis of AD should begin with a physical examination.During evaluation, it may be helpful to use an allergy-centered history.These specific questions can provide you with a detailed history, which may help improve the management plan you can create.
The discovery of this allergen-centric history may also indicate that the next best step is to schedule specific IgE tests.Skin acupuncture tests (SPT) and specific IgE blood tests are useful diagnostic tools that you can use to rule out suspicious allergies, giving you greater diagnostic certainty.Specific IgE blood tests can be performed regardless of skin condition, and SPT may not be appropriate for skin condition in AD patients.
There are a variety of treatments available to alleviate the disease, including the use of moisturizers to hydrate and restore skin barriers, avoiding typical AD triggers, specific behavior methods to reduce scratching, antibacterial measures, and local and/or systemic anti-inflammatory drugs .During the decade in the United States, 7.4 million children under the age of 18 were registered with the doctor’s office for a diagnosis of AD.Local corticosteroids (TCSs) were used in 25-34% of patients, and calcineurin inhibitors were used in 23% of patients.For mild diseases, regular use of emollients and TCSs or calcineurin inhibitors is recommended .In most cases, these drugs can be used alone or in combination to bring relief to patients;In more thorny cases, however, they are rarely enough.The treatment of AD is highly dependent on several factors, such as patient perceptions, adherence, triggers, and psychosocial disorders, but the most important factor in choosing a particular drug and treatment may be the severity of the disease and any registered efficacy of previous treatments .Therefore, in order to review emerging topical therapies, we focus on AD patients who are usually relieved by established topical treatments and emollients